Print ISSN: 0253-0759

Online ISSN: 2413-4414

Volume 27, Issue 1

Volume 27, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2009, Page 1-53


DEPLETED URANIUM AND INCIDENCE OF CANCER IN BASRAH: A PRELIMINARY ECOLOGICAL STUDY

Hamid T. Al-Saad; Narjis A. Ajeel; Laith A. Alrudainy

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49004

ABSTRACT
Background: Basrah has been exposed to massive environmental pollution during past years including depleted
uranium (DU) as a consequence of military conflicts. Many studies have reported an increase in incidence of cancer
in Basrah.
Objectives: To explore the ecological relationship between DU and cancer incidence in Basrah.
Material & methods: Basrah governorate was divided into seven geographical areas. Exposed areas to DU were
dotted on the map of Basrah. Incidence rates of cancer were distributed in these seven areas. Statistical analysis
included descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation analysis.
Results: This study did not find ecological correlation between incidence rate of cancer and level of exposure to DU in
Basrah.
Conclusions: Although the result of the ecological study may be affected by the ecological fallacy, the power to
generate hypothesis about the relationship between DU and cancer risk is still weak especially when taking into
account the results of previous studies of uranium exposure and cancer risk. Further epidemiological studies are
needed to clarify a possible carcinogenic effect of residential exposure to DU.

HUMAN RECOMBINANT ERYTHROPOIETIN IN THE TREATMENT OF ANEMIA OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

Isam Hamo Mahmood; Emadeldin Ibrahim Al-badrani; Najlaa Saadi

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 7-10
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49013

ABSTRACT
Objective: To compare the effect of small doses of recombinant erythropoietin on anemia of patients with chronic
kidney disease who need dialysis and those are not on dialysis.
Design: Case-comparative study.
Setting: Nephrology Department in Al-Salaam Teaching Hospital, Mosul.
Methods: Eighty patients having chronic kidney disease (40 patients needed dialysis and 40 patients needed no
dialysis) participated in the study. Epoetin alfa given s.c. in a dose of 4000 IU, 2 times weekly. Hemoglobin was
measured before drug administration and every 2 weeks and at the end of the trial period (3 months).
Result: A significant increase of hemoglobin level had been obtained after treatment with erythropoietin in both
groups. Comparison between hemoglobin elevation of both groups ( 3.0 g/l for patients without dialysis and 2.9 g/l for
patients with dialysis) revealed a non significant difference (P>0.5).
Conclusion: the present study demonstrated that the administration of epoetin alfa, s.c. in a dose of 4000 IU twice
weekly is effective in the elevation of hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease. The effect is
comparable in patients who need dialysis and in patients who need no dialysis, also the effect is similar in both sexes.

CANCER IN BASRAH: A STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE

Jawad K Hassan; Kareem A Al-Emara; Omran S. Habib; Narjis AH Ajeel

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 11-14
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49018

ABSTRACT
Cancer can be controlled by at least five synchronized strategies: population-based registration, prevention using both
high risk and population approaches, adequate services for early detection and treatment, palliative care and research
In this paper, we present a view on how to adopt such multi-approach strategy to contain cancer in Basrah and in
Iraq. The assumptions behind our view are:
1. Cancer is an important public health problem
2. Cancer is a growing public health problem
3. Many cancers are preventable, many others can be cured and only small proportions lie outside the domains of
prevention and cure.
4. The strategy encompasses all necessary partners (academic, health, environmental, NGOs …etc)
We believe that the first correct step in the strategy is adequate population-based cancer registration. The authors are
prepared to discuss their views with open constructive mind.

SPECTRUM OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES IN BASRA: AN ECHOCARDIOGRPHY STUDY

Jawad Khadim; Sawsan Issa

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 15-18
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49020

ABSTRACT
This is a retrospective study that was set out to describe the spectrum of congenital heart disease using
echocardiography in two main centers in Basra over a period of 24 months from June (2006-2008). Children with the
diagnosis of congenital heart disease were selected; information obtained from their records included age, gender,
clinical diagnosis and chocardiography finding. Five hundred seventy patients had congenital heart disease making
40% of 1414 examined children. There were 309(54%) males and 261(46%) females (ratio 1.2:1); their ages ranged
from 3 days to 19 years. Two hundred forty four (42.8%) children referred for echocardiography before the age of
one year and two hundred one (35.2%) were 1-4 years of age. Ventricular septal defect was the most common
congenital heart disease present in 247 patients (43.3%), of these (81.8%) were membranous in type, 41(16.6%)
were muscular, and 4(1.6%) were supracristal type. The second commonest congenital heart disease diagnosed by
echocardiography was tetralogy of Fallot in 72(12.6%) of examined children. Sixty eight (11.9%) had atrial septal
defects, out of which 55(80.9%) were of secundum type, 7(10.3%) were primum, 5(7.4%) had sinus venosus defect
and only one case with coronary sinus defect. Distribution of specific lesions and sex distribution were similar to
findings from other parts of the world; However, the overall detection rate at 1 year of age was lower, with increasing
availability of echocardiography facilities more cases of congenital heart defects are likely to be identified early.

HISTOLOGICAL TOXIC EFFECT OF NANDROLONE DECANOATE ON THE KIDNEY OF MALE RABBITS: Part one

Rand A. Hasso

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 19-22
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49026

ABSTRACT
Over the past several decades it has been known that there are an increase in the prevalence of anabolic steroid use by
athletes. The pathophysiology and prognosis of anabolic-androgenic steroid use remains unclear. The aim of this
study is to investigate the histological toxic effects of nandrolone decanoate on the kidney of male rabbits. 21 rabbits
were divided into three groups; each consists of 7 animals. The control group was injected with normal saline. Group
(І) received 2mg/kg body weight, and group (П) received 6mg/kg body weight. Animals received the dose weekly for
2 months duration. There was an increase in the weights of kidney of group (П) compared to other groups. The
histological pattern of the kidney of group(І) was nearly normal, while kidney of group (П) showed more severe
pathological damage which includes enlargement and hypercellularity including the mesangial cells of the renal
glomerular tuft with narrowing of Bowman's capsule. Vacuolar degeneration of the lining epithelium of the proximal
convoluted tubules and some tubules showed sloughing and necrosis of the epithelial cells. These results showed that
nandrolone decanoate had histological toxic effects on the kidney of rabbits.

MORPHOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF LIVER HEPATOCYTE IN RABBITS TREATED WITH NANDROLONE DECANOATE: PART TWO

Mohammed Taib Tahir; Rand A. Hasso; Ayad A. AL-Sarraj

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49030

ABSTRACT
Background: The use of anabolic steroids among competitive athletes to enhance their physical performance is
widespread. Numerous reports have noted hepatotoxicity secondary to anabolic steroid use. Androgenic-anabolic
steroid will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins.
Objective: To study the effect of nandrolone decanoate on the number, the long diameter of hepatocytes, and the long
diameter of nucleus using morphometrical method.
Materials and Methods: Twenty eight rabbits were divided into 4 groups and each group includes 7 animals. Group
(1) was the normal control group that was injected with normal saline. Group (2) was injected with 2mg/kg body
weight of nandrolone decanoate. Group (3) was injected with 4mg/kg body weight of nandrolone decanoate. Group
(4) was injected with 6mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug was administered weekly for three months by deep
intramuscular injection in the thigh. The number hepatocytes, their long diameter and the long diameter of the
nucleus were estimated by using Visopan Projection Microscope.
Results: The results showed that the number of hepatocytes in group (3) was significantly higher (28.43±7.83) at P<
0.05 compared to other groups. The long diameter of hepatocytes of group (2) which received the lowest dose was
normal, while group (3) and (4) showed significant increase in the long diameter of hepatocytes which was
(10.71±1.98) in group (3), and (12±1.91) in group (4) compared to normal control group which was (8.86+ 1.22).
Group (4) had the longest diameter of the nucleus of hepatocytes which was (4.57±1.13).
Conclusion: On the basis of these results, nandrolone decanoate may cause several morphometrical changes in the
hepatocytes of treated rabbits.

PATTERN OF RESPONSES TO HEPATITIS B VIRUS VACCINE IN BASRAH, IRAQ

Firas T. Mansour; Hassan J. Hasony

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 28-33
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49033

ABSTRACT
A serological study was carried out in Basrah governorate, southern Iraq, from October 2004 to the end of
September2006 aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBs-antibody among four groups of individuals: Children
under 15 years of age, medical personnel, barbers and unvaccinated adults, to determine HBV vaccination coverage
in our area, also to evaluate the duration of vaccine induced immunity and the rate of waning immunity as well as
the determination of the proportion of hepatitis type B among the other causes of hepatitis occurring in the
community. A total of 762 individuals were included in the study from whom blood samples were collected. The
overall vaccination coverage among the study population was 62.9% leaving 37.1% unvaccinated. An enzymelinked
Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of anti-HBs-IgG antibody, showed a
prevalence of 71.2%, 66.7%, 51.4%, and 8.7% for barbers, medical personnel (occupational exposure), children
under 15years of age and unvaccinated adults respectively. There was a clear effect for the number of vaccine doses
administered on the levels of seroconversion, with no significant differences in antibody associated with sex or
geographical distribution of vaccinees, but there was a difference in relation to occupation. There was a significant
decline in the levels of antibody overtime post vaccination and the losses of protective levels of antibodies were quite
evident by 3-4 years post the primary vaccine doses which stress the need for booster doses. In the primary
vaccination schedule the time interval of 5-6 months between the 2nd and 3rd vaccine doses is suitable for better
responses to HBV vaccine. The proportion of icteric HB was 14.7% while 85.3% was due to other hepatitis causes,
and the rate of hepatitis B among individuals with no history of hepatitis was 2.6% referring to the subclinical cases.

ACUTE ABDOMINAL SURGICAL EMERGENCY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS (A PROSPECTIVE STUDY)

Ahmed Ziara Al-Hussainy; Mazin Hawaz Al-Hawaz; Mazin Abdulsatar Abdulla

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 34-41
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49036

ABSTRACT
Background: Longer life expectancy has created an increasing demand for surgical care of the elderly. In addition,
abdominal surgical emergencies are potentially serious and life threatening for this age group of patients.
Aim: The aim of this study is to know the type of common surgical abdominal emergencies, mode of treatment,
complications and outcome in elderly patients.
Patients and methods: One hundred patients aged 60 years and above who had been admitted to the surgical
department in Basrah General Hospital were prospectively evaluated according to the demographic features, causes
of abdominal emergencies they presented with, post operative clinical course and outcome.
Results: Out of 100 patients included in the study 60% were males and 40% were females, with an average age of
67.39 years (range from 60-83 years). The causes of acute surgical abdominal emergencies were intestinal
obstruction (55%), hollow viscus perforation (17%), acute cholecystitis (12%), mesenteric vascular occlusion (9%),
and acute appendicitis (7%). Most of the cases of intestinal obstruction were due to adhesion, while perforated DU
was the main cause of hollow viscus perforation. Twenty patients (20%) died in the early post operative period with
mesenteric vascular occlusion being the leading cause of death (35%).
Conclusions: Acute intestinal obstruction and hollow viscus perforation appear to be the main causes of acute
abdominal surgical emergencies. Obstructed hernia which constituted 14% of the causes is generally preventable.
Acute mesenteric ischaemia and bowel obstruction secondary to colonic tumour had a worse prognosis in elderly
patients.

PREVALENCE OF ENURESIS IN NASSIRIYAH CITY-THI QAR GOVERNORATE

Alaa H. Abed; Omran S. Habib; Moayyad N Majeed

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 42-45
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49040

ABSTRACT
In this paper we report the results pertaining to a cross sectional study carried out on 617 households in Nassiryiah
City-Thi Qar governorate. The study aims at determining, among other things, the prevalence of enuresis among
children aged 5-15 years. A total of 942 children in the targeted age group were identified and 233 of them were
reported to have enuresis. These figures gave an overall prevalence rate of enuresis at 24.7% with substantial decrease
with advancing age from 40.6% in children aged 5-6 years to 5.4% in children aged 13-15 years. The prevalence was
higher among first born children (31.5%) as compared to those born afterwards (22.0%). The prevalence was also
higher among children with positive family history (52.4%) as compared to those with negative family history
(18.2%) but no difference was detected between sexes. The majority of cases of enuresis were of primary type
(95.7%), nocturnal timing (97.0%) and of daily frequency (44.0%). The study came to the conclusion that enuresis
is common in children in Nassiryiah city and deserves more care from the medical profession.

NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS), FREE RADICALS AND REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES (ROS): A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Karam-Allah S. Mahmood; Jawad H. Ahmed; Abdullah M. Jawad

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 46-53
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2009.49041

ABSTRACT
A wide controversy exists regarding the effect of NSAIDs on the oxidative status. Each member of these NSAIDs has
been shown to act both as antioxidant or pro-oxidant in different test systems, using different concentrations and
various oxidative stress-inducing agents. This review tackles this problem and tries to look for factors that might be
responsible for this variation in results.