Print ISSN: 0253-0759

Online ISSN: 2413-4414

Volume 24, Issue 1

Volume 24, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2006, Page 1-81


IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION OF LOCAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA FOR PREPARATION OF FERMENTED MILK AND STUDY THEIR EFFECTS ON LIPID PROFILE OF RABBIT SERUM

Nawfal Abdul-Ameer Husain; Ibraheim Ahmad Mahmood; Hassan Jaber Hasony

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46405

ABSTRACT
Two local isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L-53) and Bifidobacterium (B3) was obtained from
neonatal stool cultured on MRS media. These isolates was used in preparation of probiotic fermented
milk products (ABT and ABY).The effect of the prepared probiotic products on rabbit serum lipid
profile was studied through two experimental designs (Therapeutic: A, Prophylactic: B). Consumption of
ABT and ABY products showed clear reduction in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low density
lipid (LDL) by 4 weeks of utilization which was more reduced by 8 weeks of consumption (P<0.01)
referring to the importance of consumption duration in reducing these levels compared to the control
groups. Proportional mixing of probiotic bacteria with ordinary yogurt bacteria enhances their effect of
the levels of TC and LDL. In contrast, the levels of high density lipid (HDL) and triglycerides (TG)
showed no significant differences (P>0.05). However, the consumption of these products reduces the ratio
of LDL: HDL which has a significant value in reducing the risk of acquiring atheroschlerosis. The regular
consumption of probiotic products (Exp.B) showed clear prophylactic effect in maintaining lower levels
of TC and LDL compared to the control group despite the utilization of cholestrol enriched diet.

GYNAECOLOGICAL DISORDERS THAT MIMICS ACUTE SURGICAL CONDITIONS: A STUDY ON 588 FEMALE PATIENTS WITH THE PRESUMPTIVE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS

Issam Merdan

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 6-8
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46406

ABSTRACT
Objective: In surgical practice, the surgeon may face several gynaecological disorders that can present as
an acute abdomen, more specifically acute appendicitis. Some of these disorders may not need surgical
interference. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidental findings of gynaecological
disorders in a routine surgical practice in a major hospital in Basrah (Iraq) and to determine the
incidence, types and features of these diseases that differentiate them from surgical diseases in order to
avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.
Patients and Methods: This study was conducted from January 2000 to 2004 in Al-Sadir Teaching
Hospital in Basrah, it included 588 female patients of different age groups who were admitted to the
hospital with presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Results: Intra operative diagnosis of acute appendicitis was confirmed in 65.3% while normal appendices
were found in 6.9%. Gynecological disorders were found in 24.3%, of these disorders, the most common
was ruptured ovarian cysts. Age group mostly affected was between 21 and 30 years.
Conclusion: Female patients especially in child bearing age who present clinically as acute abdomen or
acute appendicitis needs proper in hospital observation and repeated clinical examination together with
the use of ultrasound in order to exclude gynaecological disorders that didn't need surgical interference.

ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE USE AND GLUCOSE METABOLISM

Edward Z. Khosho

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 9-12
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46409

ABSTRACT
This is a prospective study done at the family planning clinic of Basrah Maternity and Child Hospital
from February till September 2002. The objective was to determine the effect of combined oral
contraceptive pills on glucose metabolism. The results showed that there is significant elevation in the
HbA1C (P<0.001) readings after 3 months of using combined oral contraceptive pills and there is no
significant changes in random blood sugar reading after 3 months of combined oral contraceptive pills
using. There is highly significant change in HbA1C readings in association with age between 31-34 years,
body mass index > 25 kg/m2, parity > 5 and low social class.

LOW-LYING PLACENTA IN BASRA: FETOMATERNAL OUTCOME

Fouad Hamad AL-Dahhan

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 13-18
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46410

ABSTRACT
Objective: To study the maternal and foetal complications of low-lying placenta at the main referral
hospital in Basrah.
Methods: This is a case control study of 598 pregnant women attended the ultrasound department at
Basra Maternity & Child Hospital, from December 1998 to June 2000; 182 cases with low-lying placenta
and 416 control.
Results: When the low-lying placenta compared with the control group, there is a significant increase in
the incidence of obstetrical & neonatal complications. These include abortion, preterm labour, abnormal
lie, and presentation, caesarean section, postpartum haemorrhage and caesarean hysterectomy.
Neonatal complications include preterm babies, babies with low birth weight and Apgar score. Perinatal
deaths mainly caused by Respiratory Distress Syndrome constitute 6.9%. Type I & II praevia carries a
lower risk of antenatal, postnatal, & foetal complications than type III & IV. There was no maternal
death among the study group.
Conclusion: Low lying placenta, especially major degree, have a high incidence of obstetrical
complications, the most important of which are preterm labour and massive ante-partum and
postpartum haemorrhage. There is increased incidence of neonatal complications, mainly prematurity,
small for gestational age and perinatal deaths. There was no relation noted between placenta praevia
and congenital anomalies of the newborns.

ISOLATION OF UREAPLASMA UREALYTICUM IN NEWBORN INFANTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS

Ghaed; a J. Abdulnabi; Assim K. Al-Chalabi

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 19-22
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46755

ABSTRACT The study was carried out in the neonatal care units (NCU) of Basrah Maternity & Children Hospital from the 1st of May to 9th of September 2003. Eighty newborn infants having respiratory distress & one hundred normal newborn infants as control group were included in this study. Information including age, sex, gestational age, mode of delivery, birth weight and signs of respiratory distress were recorded for each neonate. Throat swabs were taken from the patients and the control group and cultured on special media for each baby included in the study. Among the neonates with respiratory distress, Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from twenty two males (40.7%) out of fifty four males and fourteen females (53.8%) out of twenty six females included in the study. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in (46.6%) of newborn babies whom gestational age was less than 37 weeks and in (42.8%) of newborn babies whom gestational age was more than or equals to 37 weeks. The study also found that neonates with birth weight less than or equal to 1500grams are liable to infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum more than babies with birth weight more than 1500 grams and a high percentage of isolation (66.7%) was recorded in patients with signs of severe respiratory distress. It can be concluded from this study that U. urealyticum can be isolated more from neonates admitted to NCU because of respiratory distress than normal neonates particularly in the very low birth weight newborns, but the real role of this organism as an etiological cause of pneumonitis needs further studies.

RISK FACTORS AND LABOUR OUTCOME IN PAROUS WOMEN WITH PRE - ECLAMPSIA

Methal A. Alrubaee

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46412

ABSTRACT
This is a case-control study, carried out to estimate the frequency of parous women with pre-eclampsia
among all deliveries conducted in the study period (September 2004 -September 2005); to identify
demographic, medical and obstetrical risk factors that are associated with recurrence of pre-eclampsia
in subsequent pregnancies as well as to assess perinatal outcome. The study included 165 parous women
with pre-eclampsia as (cases) compared to 200 normotensive parous women as (controls). The study
found that the incidence of parous women with pre-eclampsia was about 1% of all deliveries. Recurrence
rate was about 55%. Advanced maternal age, body overweight and obesity, chronic hypertension,
previous pre-eclampsia, long interval between pregnancies, previous preterm labor, poor antenatal care
and family history of pre-eclampsia were the main risk factors associated with development of preeclampsia.
Higher rate of cesarean section for eclampsia, fetal distress and abruption placenta was
found among parous women with pre-eclampsia as well as high rate of abruption placenta and
postpartum haemorrhage as obstetrical complications. Adverse perinatal outcome was reported in
women with pre-eclampsia in term of high rate of preterm delivery, fetal death, low birth weight and
low apgar scor. In conclusion; the overall recurrence of pre-eclampsia in subsequent pregnancies is still
high with poor prognosis regarding maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE AND BIOFILM FORMATION AMONG METHICILLIN RESISTANT COAGULASE NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM CONJUNCTIVITIS

Hadeel T. AL-Hadithi; Khalid I. AL-Mearaj; Mokhtar A. AL-Hammdi

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 28-32
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46414

ABSTRACT
Fifteen isolates of methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCONS) recovered from
fifteen cases of bacterial conjunctivitis were tested for their susceptibilities to ten antibiotics, by disc
diffusion method, the extent of their susceptibilities to vancomycin by agar dilution method and, their
capability for producing biofilm. Multiple antibiotic resistance was clearly recognized among all
MRCONS and one strain was found resistant to all antibiotics. Six out of the 15 strains (40%) exhibited
intermediate resistance to vancomycin (8-16 μg/ml) and one isolate (6.7%) recovered from adult age
group was fully resistant to vancomycin (32 μg/ml). Biofilm production was expressed by 11 out of the 15
strains. These constituted seven isolates of VRCONS (100%) and four isolates out of MRCONS (50%).
The association between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance reflects clinical significance of these
isolates and the need for determination of antibiotic susceptibility directly against biofilm-associated
organisms.

COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FOR CHILDREN UNDER TWO YEARS OF AGE AND ITS RELATION TO NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN BASRAH

ad B. Saleem

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 33-44
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46415

ABSTRACT
This is a cross-sectional study done in Basrah governorate during the period from the 1stof April to the
end of August 2005, in two primary health care centers to identify feeding patterns for children 6-24
months of age, types of complementary foods given to these children and association with the studied
children nutritional status. A total of 428 children were recruited in this survey; 205(47.9%) boys and
223(52.1%) girls. The majority of surveyed children (386 children, 90.2%) were receiving complementary
foods alone or in combination with other forms of feeding like bottle or breast-feeding. Only 42 children
(9.8%) have never been given complementary food. Breast-feeding was given alone or in combination
with complementary food or formula feeding in 281 child (65.6%) of the sample. About 15.1% of the
studied children were moderately stunted and 9.4% were severely stunted. Severe stunting was most
common at the 19-24 month age group. From the total surveyed children, 5.1% were severely wasted and
15.6 % moderately wasted. There was a significant positive correlation between stunting and age. Both
stunting and wasting show a statistically significant increase with age. Stunting was increased with
increase in age more than wasting which also increased with age but to a lower extent. There was a
significant negative correlation between parental education and malnutrition especially stunting as an
increase in educational level was associated with a lower proportion of stunted children. For both
parents, those who were illiterate or achieved only primary school education represent near half of the
total number of families in this survey. Increase in both parental educations was associated with a
significant improvement in frequency of different diet administration. About 37.7% and 17.3% of the
surveyed children had two or three other siblings aged less than five years respectively. 63.1% of
children were given drinking water without sterilization. Complementary food administration is
positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with malnutrition. Administered foods were
mainly in the form of low energy density food and were low in animal protein. Those children offered
complementary foods less frequently are more likely to be malnourished. On the other hand, children
who were breastfed were less likely to be malnourished even if complementary foods were not given.
This nutritional survey has provided useful information about nutritional problems for children 6-24
months. Malnutrition affects a significant proportion of children from (6-24) months of age. Possible
contributing factors include: lack of parental education especially among mothers, poor socioeconomic
status of families and use of unsterilized water for drinking. Complementary foods administered to these
children consist mainly of low energy density and low animal protein diet. Breast-feeding continues to
be a very important as it protects against childhood malnutrition even after 6 months of age and through
the second year of life.

MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN AL-DIWANIYA CITY

Jaafar K. Naama Al-Mousawi; Hashim R.Tarish; Manal M. Kadhum Al-Saadi

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 45-49
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46417

ABSTRACT
The study was designed in across-sectional pattern, on 335 pregnant women who attended the
department of obstetrics and gynaecology at Maternity and Child Teaching Hospital, and some private
clinics in AL-Diwaniya city. They were examined for bacterial vaginosis in the period from September
2002 to the end of February 2003. The present study showed that 96(28.6%) women affected by bacterial
vaginosis, 109(32.6%) women presented with abnormal vaginal discharge due to other causes and 130
(38.8%) women without any signs and symptoms of vaginitis G.vaginalis were isolated from 89(93.7%),
3(2.7%) and 45(34.6%)of the above mentioned groups respectively. The main age group of bacterial
vaginosis occurrence was (25-35%) years, and was more common among pregnant women in the third
trimester of pregnancy (40.7%), where the economic status and parity of patient appeared to play no role
on the disease prevalence. It was found that the bacterial vaginosis plays an important and significant
role in the causation of preterm delivery (Odds ratio 2.9). It was found that Amsel's criteria are good and
valid screening tests in the early diagnosis than the cultural technique, because of their high sensitivity
and specificity, which yielded (96%, 95%) respectively. Other microorganisms are mainly Candida
albicans (11.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.4%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4.8%), Beta haemolytic
streptococcal (3.6%) and to a less prevalence rates for Neisseria gonorrhea (2.6%) and Trichomonas
vaginalis (2.08%).

HEARING LOSS IN IRAQI DIVERS

Alaa H. Abid; Jasim N. Al-Asadi; Omran S. Habib

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 50-54
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46419

ABSTRACT
Background: Ear problems, particularly hearing loss, in divers are well known and documented all over
the world. Studies showed that they form the most common health problems among divers. However, it
seems that this problem has never been investigated in the Iraqi divers population.
Aim: This cross-sectional comparative study is an attempt aims to contribute to the better
understanding of the extent and impact of the problem among the local divers and to relate certain risk
factors associated with diving.
Subjects & Methods: One hundred and eleven divers and 222 non-divers were interviewed regarding this
problem and examined audiometerically.
Results showed that 45% of the studied divers complained of some sort of ear problems. In a
considerable number of them the problem is serious. Audiometerically, about 50.5% of divers have some
degree of hearing loss. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of hearing loss in divers as
compared to non-divers. Furthermore, hearing loss problem among divers was more severe than in nondivers
and it was mostly bilateral. High frequencies are the ones affected more.
The role of certain proposed risk factors was studied with few conclusive findings; these are the
association between hearing loss and underwater blast, maximum depth, duration of profession and
underwater diving accidents.
Further studies and regular check-ups are strongly recommended.

THE EFFECTS OF DIVING ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

Najim AH. Alewi; Jasim N. Al-Asadi; Omran S. Habib

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 55-59
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46420

ABSTRACT
Background: Diving as an occupation has its specific health problems. Respiratory system is one of the
systems that can be affected by environmental changes associated with diving as increased hydrostatic
pressure, increased breathing gas density, and increased partial pressure of gases e.g. oxygen and carbon
dioxide.
Aim: To determine the effects of diving on pulmonary function and the extent of this problem among
Iraqi divers.
Subjects & Methods: One hundred and twenty divers with 240 non-divers military personnel were
interviewed according to special questionnaire and spirometry was performed for each of them.
Results: The values of all studied pulmonary function tests were found to be lower in divers as compared
with non-divers (FEV1, FVC, FEV1%, F50, F25, MVV, and MEF) with highly significant differences, except
FET which was significantly higher in divers than in non-divers. These changes gave the features of
obstructive airway disease.
Conclusions: Divers are at risk of some pulmonary function changes. The pattern of these changes is
consistent with small airways obstruction and they could be related mostly to their diving activities.
Other factors cannot be excluded. Further studies on such occupational group are recommended.

HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES AMONG DIVERS

Adil G Fadhil; Jasim N Al-Asadi; Narjis A. H. Ajeel

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 60-65
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46421

ABSTRACT
Diving as a job, exposes individuals to a variety of environmental stresses not often encountered in other
types of activities. These stresses lead to changes in many organ systems in the body of divers including
haemopoietic system. No previous study was carried out in Iraq to examine the changes in
haematological parameters among divers and the association between the diving environmental factors
and these changes.
This is a cross-sectional comparative study with a practical component. Eighty divers and 160 nondivers
from the Iraqi Navy Force were included. Twenty-five divers were exposed to 2.5 ATA (Absolute
Atmosphere) pressure for 15 minutes in a hyperbaric chamber.
All the studied haematological parameters, which were evaluated, including WBC count, RBC count, Hb
concentration, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, platelet count, MPV, and ESR were found to be different in
divers as compared to non-divers. The MCV, PCV, MCH, platelet count, were significantly lower in
divers. While Hb, and MCHC values were lower in divers but without a statistical significant difference.
In addition, the mean RBC count, MPV, and ESR were significantly higher in divers. While WBC count
was not significantly higher in divers.
The study confirmed the previous findings of other studies, which indicate that diving has an effect on
the haemopoietic system. The need to introduce haematological investigations as part of the preemployment
check-up of divers, as well as periodic investigations of divers are recommended.

EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA ON STRESS-ETHANOL INDUCED ACUTE GASTRIC ULCERATION IN RABBITS

Nadheera F. NaemaJ; Nabeel A. Ali; awad H. Ahmed

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-69
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46423

ABSTRACT
The anti-ulcer effect of the aqueous extract of Matricaria chamomilla flowers (chamomile extract, CE)
had been tested on stress- ethanol induced gastric ulceration in rabbits. The first part of the study was to
induce acute gastric ulceration by stress or stress–ethanol combinations. Stress alone was unable to
produce gastric ulcerations while ulcer was induced in the group of rabbits exposed to stress in the
presence of ethanol (5ml / kg ) with a mean value of ulcer index of 108.3mm ± 29 (n=8). Histopathological
examination was done to confirm the effect of stress-ethanol combination on gastric mucosa. The second
part of the study was performed to investigate the pharmacological effect of various concentrations of
the aqueous extract of chamomile (1%, 4% and 8%) on gastric ulceration. The extract was given 15
minutes before ethanol administration. The results have shown a significant anti ulcer effect of
chamomile extract with mean values of ulcer index of 76. 4mm± 14.2 (P< 0.01); 11mm ± 14.2 (P<0.005)
and 53mm±27.9 (P<0.01) for the concentrations 1%, 4% and 8% respectively as compared to the control
value of 133.25 mm±46.2 (n=8). It is concluded that the extract of Matricaria chamomilla flowers has anti
ulcer effect.

CAT AND DOG DANDER ALLERGENS CAUSING TYPE I HYPERSENSITIVITY IN ASTHMATIC AND OTHER ALLERGIC PATIENTS

Abeer L. Mohammed; Fawzia A. Abdulla; Hadi Al-Fyadh

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 70-77
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46425

ABSTRACT
Allergens extracts from cats and dogs dander were prepared by extraction, followed by
purification and fractionation by gel filtration. One major peak was obtained from cat dander
with a molecular weight 35KDa, where as two major peaks were obtained from dog dander with
a molecular weight 21 and 18 KDa. Total and specific IgE ELISA test was performed on 137
patient’s sera samples. The rate of the total IgE positive ELISA results was (72.99%). From the
total IgE positive, it was found that the rate of the specific IgE positive ELISA results was 49%
in case of patients examined with cat dander and 29% in patients examined with dog dander.
There was significant difference (P<0.05) among different age groups regarding the number of
patients who had specific IgE positive results, where the highest rates were observed in male
and female of 10-30 years of age. In addition, a significant difference (P<0.05) was observed
between cat and dog allergy and also among the people who were living in urban and rural
area. There is a cross-reaction between the cat and dog danders, extracts and the IgE binding
capacity of cat and dog danders, protein extract was high since lower concentration of these
extracts was needed to inhibit up to 50% of IgE specific binding sites to the allergosorbent.

HYPERTENSION AND FAMILY HISTORY IN MISSAN: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

Yassen Obied Yaseen

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 78-81
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2006.46426

ABSTRACT
In this case-control study, family history, as a risk factor for hypertension, was assessed in 464 patients
with proved hypertension revealing 247(53.2%) hypertensive patients with positive family history of this
disease as compared to 26.4% of normotensive control subjects with positive family history of
hypertension. More frequent hypertensive mothers were recognized as a first degree relative to both
hypertensive and normotensive patients inquired about family history of hypertension.