Smoking and urinary bladder cancer: A case-control study in Basrah
The Medical Journal of Basrah University,
Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
AbstractBackground: The primary and well established risk factor for urinary bladder cancer is cigarette smoking.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and the development of urinary bladder cancer in Basrah.
Methods: A case control study was conducted to examine the association between the risk of urinary bladder cancer and various characteristics of smoking: the smoking status (current or ex-smoker), smoking intensity (cigarette per day), duration, total exposure (pack-years), type of cigarette (filtered or unfiltered), inhalation, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. The study population composed of 87 patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer cases and 357 controls. Cases and controls were matched for age, sex, and residence.
Results: An increased risk of urinary bladder cancer was found for both current and ex-smoker (for current smoker OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.68-5.28 and for ex-smoker OR = 4.05; 95% CI = 2.19-7.48). The study also revealed a significant positive trend in urinary bladder cancer risk with smoking intensity, pack-years, and environmental tobacco smoke.
Conclusion: The results of the present study are consistent with the findings of the previous epidemiological studies and confirm that smoking is a major risk factor for urinary bladder cancer and preventive strategies should be directed toward smoking as risk factor for urinary bladder cancer in Basrah.
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