One hundred and eighty asymptomatic workers in the steel industry of Basrah whose duration of employment ranges
from 5-15 year were randomly selected and examined at Al Sader teaching hospital during the period (2000-2002).
Workers was assessed clinically and the function of their respiratory system were studied by measuring FEV1 (Forced
Expiratory Volume in the first second) and FVC (Forced Vital Capacity). The results showed that the majority of the
examined workers 45.55% had restrictive pulmonary defect, 20% had obstructive pulmonary defect while 7.22% had
combined obstructive and restrictive defects.