Background: Anaemia is a significant global health concern. Hereditary haemoglobin abnormalities are one of the most frequent causes of anaemia in pregnant women. Pregnant women with Hemoglobinopathies are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and low birth weight. The study aimed to determine the fate of pregnancies in women with hemoglobinopathies and to identify the predictors for adverse outcomes among these ladies.
Subjects and Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Basrah Teaching Hospital for maternity and children from the 1st of September 2022 to the 1st of July 2023. One hundred nine women were included in the study, 33 ladies with sickle cell trait group, 22 ladies with thalassemia minor and 57 ladies as healthy controls. The socio-demographic, pregnancy-related characteristics, maternal morbidity, and maternal and fetal outcomes were assessed in this study.
Results: The current study found that sickle cell trait has a higher risk of emergency C-section (20%), while Thalassemia minor has a higher risk of elective C-section (22.7%). Sickle cell traits significantly increase the risk of puerperal infection (23.3%), and they also increase the risk of urinary tract infection (20%). Hemoglobinopathies, particularly sickle cell trait, significantly increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (16.7%), but there is no significant increment in the risk of other maternal outcomes. Both sickle cell trait and thalassemia minor are significantly associated with lower BMI, lower Hb, and lower serum ferritin levels (P-value < 0.05).
Conclusion: Sickle cell trait and thalassemia minor increase the risk of poor maternal and fetal outcomes.