Main Subjects : Pharmacology

The anti ulcer effect of omeprazole is modified by Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) in ethanol induced gastric ulceration in rabbits

Jawad Hassan Ahmed; Ali Mohammed Al-Rawaq

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 85-98
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2020.127147.1018

Background: An interaction has been reported between Nigella Sativa (NS) and ranitidine (RAN) on gastric ulceration induced by ethanol in rabbits; the combination NS and RAN caused disappearance of anti-ulcer effect of NS or RAN.
Objective: to investigate interaction of NS with a proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (OMP) on ethanol induced gastric ulceration in rabbits.
Methods: 24 mature rabbits were divided into 4 groups. The animals were fasted for 48 hours then treated as follow: group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were treated respectively with normal saline (oral), NS oil (10ml/kg) orally, OMP (20mg/kg) IP, and NS+ OMP. One hour later, animals were given absolute ethanol orally; and sacrificed 3 hours later for estimation of Ulcer index (UI), gastric pH, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), histamine (HIS) levels in serum and gastric tissue.
Results: Ethanol induced gastric ulceration in all animals with an UI of 10 ± 0.11 mm2. This effect was paralleled with reduction in gastric pH, increased MDA and HIS and reduction in GSH. UI was reduced to 5.13 ± 0.68 mm2 in NS group, P value = 0.07 and to around zero in OMP group. NS or OMP treatment resulted in reduction in serum and tissue MDA and HIS levels and increased in GSH and gastric pH levels. In NS + OMP treated group, UI became higher than OMP group with MDA and HIS tended to rise and GSH and gastric pH declined.
Conclusion: NS + OMP diminished the gastro-protective effect of either NS or OMP.

The Effect of Folate Status on Methotrexate Serum Level and Response in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Dhuha Emad Omran; Nabeel Ali; Jenan Ghalib

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 47-57
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2020.126734.1006

Background: Children in our area are more prone to folate deficiency due to many reasons including leukemia. The folate status of patients especially prior to therapy could influence methotreaxate therapeutic effect or toxicity
Patients and Methods: A total of 34 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 25 normal healthy children were included as a control group. Parameters measured include; Serum folate, Serum methotrexate, blood parameters, liver function tests, blood urea and serum creatinine that were measured before initiation of chemotherapy, during treatment and following completion.
Result: Newly diagnosed ALL children have low folate level at the time of diagnosis (5.26 ± 3.82 ng/ml, mean±sd) which is significantly lower than control group (11.16 ± 5.20 ng/ml, mean±sd) (p value ˂ 0.0001). Leukemic children that have low folate is 20 with a serum level (3.12 ± 1 ng/ml, mean±sd), normal folate level is found in only 14 leukemic children and their level (8.83 ± 4.14 ng/ml, mean±sd). Low WBC and platelets count was detected following the first methotrexate dose which returns back to normal afterward. Folate serum level of all leukemic children at end of all doses is significantly elevated (14.58 ± 5.3 ng/ml, mean±sd) (p value ˂ 0.0001).
Conclusion: Serum folate level is low in a considerable number of newly diagnosed ALL children before the initiation of treatment protocol, this lead to more hematological toxicity following the first methotrexate dose. It is recommended that serum folate should be measured and deficiency corrected prior to cytotoxic therapy to reduce toxicity.