Main Subjects : Epidemiology


The dynamics of COVID-19 epidemic in Basrah province-Second report

Omran Habib; Haider Jassim; Wael Jasimy Al-Shihaby; Mustafa AR Mohamed

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2020.127210.1019

Abstract
Background: COVID-19 pandemic still expanding across the world and continuing at modest pattern In Basrah.
Objective: To further elaborate on COVID-19 epidemic in Basrah province and document the changing dynamic of the disease.
Methods: two sources were used for obtaining data in this study. The first is an excel sheet containing information on 736 cases covering age, gender, residence, travel history, comorbidity and fate, which is obtained from The Department of Public Health in Basrah. The second is the daily numbers of new cases (also 736) obtained from the daily communiqué of the Ministry of Health. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-version 20) and Excel programmes were used for statistical analysis.
Results: The mean age was 35.5±18.9 (for males=35.6+19.0 and for females=35.5±18.8), the median was 34 years (males =34 and females =33). The incidence rate was higher in older age groups, females and three districts (Basrah city, Al-Hartha and Al-Mdaina). The case fatality was within the international figures and significantly predicted by older age, travel history and presence of co-morbidity. The epidemic curve is moderate, fluctuant and does not help yet in predicting an exit from the epidemic.
Conclusion: The epidemic of COVID-19 in Basrah is moderate, cluster in transmission and changing in time but is unpredictable.
Key words: COVID-19, Case fatality ratio, incidence rate

Knowledge and practice of adults attending primary health care centers regarding major coronary heart disease risk factors in Basrah city

Jhood Abdul Samad Molan; Narjis Ajeel

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2020.165441

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are common in the general population, affecting the majority of adults past the age of 60 years. The prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is approximately one-third to one-half that of total CVD. Knowledge of CHD risk factors has been identified as a prerequisite for changes in behavior and is often targeted by prevention programs.
Objective: The study aimed to study the knowledge of risk factors and the practice of CHD related behaviors among individuals > 18 years of age attending PHC centers in Basrah city center and to find out the sociodemographic factors that affect such knowledge and practice.
Methods: The study involved 423 male and female aged 18 years and above, attending 6 primary health care centers in Basrah city. Data were collected through direct interview of the participants by the investigators, using a special questionnaire form prepared for the purpose of the study.
Results: The results of the study showed that 77.3% of the participants had good level of knowledge (know at least 7 risk factors).  The most common knowledgeable risk factors by the participants were stress, smoking, fatty diet and obesity in descending order. Older age groups, high educated persons, governmental employees and participants with history of coronary heart disease related illness were more likely to have higher knowledge score. Practicing diet modification and regular exercise were prevalent in 23.5% and 12.8% of the participants respectively.
Conclusions: The knowledge level of risk factors for CHD in selected PHC centers in Basrah seems to be good, however, the practice of CHD preventive behaviors was quite poor, this necessitates the need for public health education programs.

Epidemiological Features of COVID-19 Epidemic in Basrah-Southern Iraq-First Report

Omran S Habib; Abbas K AlKanan; ِAlaa H Abed; Nihad Q Mohammed

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 7-18
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2020.126943.1008

Epidemiological Features of COVID-19 Epidemic in Basrah-Southern Iraq-First Report
Abstract
Background: COVID- 19 expanded from an outbreak in China to a devastating pandemic across the world. .
Objective: To describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Basrah Province-Southern Iraq
Methods: Data were obtained from the Department of Public Health in Basrah and the daily communique of the Ministry of Health. Data on population were obtained from the Ministry of Planning. For all provinces the total number of cases and their fate in terms of being under treatment, cured or died was obtained. For cases in Basrah, data on age, sex, residence, fate, travel history and presence of co-morbidity for 152 cases.
Results: In Basrah, The mean age was 46 years (Median 45 years) and the range was 13-98 years. No difference in the risk of COVID-19 was related to sex. Geographical variation was inconclusive The time trend of the epidemic is modest in both new daily cases and in cumulative numbers. At one point in time (April 10) the incidence rate was 56.28 per million , which was at intermediate level among other provinces.
The total cases used for Iraq was 1279. The highest numbers were reported in Baghdad, Najaf, Erbil, Basrah and Sulaymaniyah.The lowest incidence rate was in Salah Al-Din (0.61 per million) and the highest was in Najaf (170.16 per million). The case fatality ratio for closed cases and for all cases was variable among provinces.
Conclusion: COVID-19 in Basrah and Iraq is modest until today the 10th of April 2020.

A study on job satisfaction of family physicians in Basrah

Rana Ali; Omran Habib

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 51-58
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2019.163348

Background: Job satisfaction is a reflection of interaction of the physicians and all the components of the surrounding environments. A high level of satisfaction is desirable and may contribute to better workers performance.Objectives: To explore the degree of satisfaction of family physicians in Basrah with their jobs. Methods: A cross-sectional study targeting all family physicians who were working in Basrah at the time of the study (2018) was carried out. A total of 67 out of 74 physicians were successfully interviewed according to a special questionnaire form that was prepared in the light of selected readings and guided by the researchers view on areas of interest. The data collection phase lasted for four months (April-August 2018). Results: A good proportion (43.3%) of family physicians in Basrah were posted in places other than family medicine practice. The majority were young, females, and reasonably lived close to their work sites. Family physicians were very satisfied with the supervisors (95.5%), colleagues (97.0%) and clients (86.6%). They were also satisfied with their competence in handling their daily tasks and fairly satisfied with their postgraduate training and in-services training. They were very unsatisfied with their income, their work conditions in terms of amenities and staffing, with respect to specialty under two thirds (61.2%) expressed their satisfaction with their status as family physicians but 38.8% were not satisfied and this was reflected on their desire to quit to other specialty (55.2%). A big problem is the perception that the specialty is not respected by the public (85.1%), not respected by other clinical specialties (95.5%), not supported by mass media (95.5%), and the specialty is not optimally utilized (79.1%). However, 67.2% reported that the specialty improved care delivery at primary health care centres. Conclusions: Mostly family physicians were happy with competence required to handle tasks. Except for the overall work environment, participants denied to have adequate amenities. Most positive points were related to humanities. Most of negative points were related to income, recognition and amenities. They expressed negative views on all aspects of salary valuation and most of them wanted to change specialty.

Socio-demographic characteristics of maternal deaths in Basrah or the period (2013-2017)

Riyadh ِA Al Hilfi; Rajaa A Mahmoud; Nihad Q Al Hamadi

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2019.163349

Introduction and Background: In Iraq, and due to the decades of wars and sunctions that affected people’s accessibility to the health care services, maternal death was among the main health problems over the years. Thus, studying the factors influencing this important problem is a mandatory step for a better evidence based intervention in controlling the problem. Objective: To analyze the socio-demographic factors that influence maternal deaths in Basrah during the period 2013-2017.Methodology design: The study is an observational retrospective one included information collected from the medical records, death certificate and forensic medicine reports in addition to interviewing the family as needed. A total of 201 deaths were included in the study. Results: The study shows that maternal death rate in Basrah increased sharply during 2016 compared to that of 2013 with a highest rate in Shat Al-Arab and Al-Mudiana districts. Then, a sharp decrease was noticed in 2017 compared to 2016. Maternal mortality rates were found to be increasing with increasing women’s age with the highest rate among women above 40 years old. But no big difference between maternal death rates in urban and rural areas. (88.1%) of the study women died in hospital while 11.9% of them died outside the hospital Conclusions and recommendations: Maternal death is still a problem in Basrah in spite of the decline that occurred between (2016-2017) compared to the rates in 2013. Strengthening of maternal mortality monitoring system across all districts of Basrah governorate in addition to improving the quality of registering all pregnancy related information are the main recommendations of the study.