Keywords : epidemiology

Epidemiological Features of COVID-19 Epidemic in Basrah-Southern Iraq-First Report

Omran S Habib; Abbas K AlKanan; ِAlaa H Abed; Nihad Q Mohammed

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 7-18
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2020.126943.1008

Epidemiological Features of COVID-19 Epidemic in Basrah-Southern Iraq-First Report
Background: COVID- 19 expanded from an outbreak in China to a devastating pandemic across the world. .
Objective: To describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Basrah Province-Southern Iraq
Methods: Data were obtained from the Department of Public Health in Basrah and the daily communique of the Ministry of Health. Data on population were obtained from the Ministry of Planning. For all provinces the total number of cases and their fate in terms of being under treatment, cured or died was obtained. For cases in Basrah, data on age, sex, residence, fate, travel history and presence of co-morbidity for 152 cases.
Results: In Basrah, The mean age was 46 years (Median 45 years) and the range was 13-98 years. No difference in the risk of COVID-19 was related to sex. Geographical variation was inconclusive The time trend of the epidemic is modest in both new daily cases and in cumulative numbers. At one point in time (April 10) the incidence rate was 56.28 per million , which was at intermediate level among other provinces.
The total cases used for Iraq was 1279. The highest numbers were reported in Baghdad, Najaf, Erbil, Basrah and Sulaymaniyah.The lowest incidence rate was in Salah Al-Din (0.61 per million) and the highest was in Najaf (170.16 per million). The case fatality ratio for closed cases and for all cases was variable among provinces.
Conclusion: COVID-19 in Basrah and Iraq is modest until today the 10th of April 2020.

Mortality among children in Basrah

Omran S Habib; Suham A Warid

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 93-99
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2015.108445

Background: Childhood mortality is a sensitive indicator of the health and socioeconomic status of population. Differential figures across populations and/or over time suggest variation in the quality of health, health care and standard of living. During the last three decades, all indicators of childhood mortality showed declining trend but a great variation does exist between developed and developing countries with some countries, mostly African have the highest rates.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to estimate the mortality rate among children aged less than 15 years in Basrah over a 6-year period and to identify the major causes of childhood mortality.
Methods: A retrospective, record-based study using all official records of deaths among children during the years 2008-2013.
Results: The study demonstrated that overall childhood mortality rate for the years (2008-2013) in Basrah governorate was within the international pattern with a tendency towards lower figures among various countries. Infant mortality (22.4/1000 live births) is still high as compared to many countries. Regarding the sex distribution an excess of male specific mortality rate is seen. Mortality among male children was 3.26/1000 males and 2.85/1000 female children. No explanation is verifiable but excess exposure to risk factors, such as outdoor activities could be implicated. The five leading causes of childhood death; perinatal causes, bacterial infections, congenital anomalies, accidents and diseases of the respiratory system accounted for 72.8% of all registered childhood deaths in Basrah governorate during the years.2008-2013. Most of these conditions are amenable to prevention.
Conclusions: A substantial proportion of deaths among children were related to causes of death that are amenable to prevention.
Key words: Childhood mortality, Basrah, Retrospective, Death

Cholelithiasis in children 16 years and below in Basrah: Epidemiological and Clinical study

Noor Al-Huda M. Hassan; Jasim Naeem Al-Asadi; Abbas Abdulzahra Alhasani

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 85-92
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2015.108442

Background: Although compared with adults, cholelithiasis )or gallstone disease( is unusual in infants, and in children but it is certainly not rare. Gallstones currently are being recognized in children with increased frequency therefore, it should be studied more carefully in our locality as it represents a significant health problem.
Method: This is a retrospective hospital based study of children with gall stones aged 16 years and below who were admitted to the surgical wards of five major hospitals in Basrah city, during the period from first of January 2007 to 30th June 2012. Then children were studied for demographic criteria, past history, clinical presentation, hospitalization, and the treatment approach.
Results: The total number of the study population included in this study was 95children, the mean age of them was 11.7± 3.6 years (Range: 9 months - 16 years) and the male to female ratio was (1:1.4). The majority of the patients 46 patients (78%) were symptomatic at the time of diagnosis, while only 13 patients (22%) were asymptomatic, and the reported symptoms were: abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. Sickle cell disease (SCD), Thalassemia major and hereditary Spherocytosis were three major types of hemolytic disease that predisposed children to gallstones.
Conclusions: Sickle cell disease was the major predisposing factor and responsible for 59.3% of gall stone in this study, while Thalassemia and hereditary Spherocytosis were reported less frequently (6.8% and 1.7% respectively). No reported risk factor was seen in 32.2%. Surgery was performed for most of the patients; types of surgical approach were either open cholecystectomy (with or without splenectomy) or laparoscopic cholecystectomy.