Author : M. Al-Naama, Lamia

Smoking and urinary bladder cancer: A case-control study in Basrah

Abdulkader Abdulwahab Al-Shakour; Lamia M. Al-Naama; Narjis A-H Ajeel

The Medical Journal of Basrah University, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33762/mjbu.2014.94415

Background: The primary and well established risk factor for urinary bladder cancer is cigarette smoking. ‎
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and the ‎development of urinary bladder cancer in Basrah.‎
Methods: A case control study was conducted to examine the association between the risk of urinary bladder cancer and ‎various characteristics of smoking: the smoking status (current or ex-smoker), smoking intensity (cigarette per day), ‎duration, total exposure (pack-years), type of cigarette (filtered or unfiltered), inhalation, and environmental tobacco ‎smoke exposure. The study population composed of 87 patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer cases and 357 ‎controls. Cases and controls were matched for age, sex, and residence.‎
Results: An increased risk of urinary bladder cancer was found for both current and ex-smoker (for current smoker OR ‎‎= 2.98; 95% CI = 1.68-5.28 and for ex-smoker OR = 4.05; 95% CI = 2.19-7.48). The study also revealed a significant ‎positive trend in urinary bladder cancer risk with smoking intensity, pack-years, and environmental tobacco smoke. ‎
Conclusion: The results of the present study are consistent with the findings of the previous epidemiological studies and ‎confirm that smoking is a major risk factor for urinary bladder cancer and preventive strategies should be directed ‎toward smoking as risk factor for urinary bladder cancer in Basrah. ‎